The Criterion of intelligibity of Pronunciation
English language plays a dominant role in modern world. Each of us has ever been encountered with the necessity to learn the language for many reasons. For many people the most important function of any language is communication with other people when travelling, studying or working in a foreign country. Therefore, the trend of learning English is increasing and the opportunities for the actual use of the language are becoming more frequent. The topic of this work is based largely on the communicative function of language – speaking and listening. We intend to deal with an aspect of English which is, in our opinion, often neglected in English lessons – pronunciation testing and its assessment.
The idea arose from our belief that teaching pronunciation should be a part of a syllabus of any English course, moreover, should be included from the very beginning. One reason for this statement is that it is generally believed that the age factor is influencial and small children can learn pronunciation more easily than the older or adults. The next benefit of pronunciation learning is its possible effect on listening skills. In order that our communication is comfortable for both sides, we need to understand as well as our speaking should be understandable. So the practice of our pronunciation helps other people to understand us better.
Nowadays, almost every coursebook offers pronunciation practice but any suggestions on giving such a structured feedback like those on other aspects of language are rare. We will try to present ways of testing pronounciation and try to deal with the possible ways of the consequent assessment.
Apart from the objective methods of testing pronunciation which are not usually available in schools, there are other – more often used – subjective methods. These methods are based on the assessor’s impression, so certain criteria should be followed to reach as reliable results as possible.
The first part of this work will present the tasks needed to be considered for efficient learning and teaching – the role of the teacher and the learner and the factors which have an effect on the whole pronunciation teaching and learning process.
Next, we will give an overview of the testing methods in connection with the two approaches to impression-based assessment – atomistic and holistic.
The last research part will implement the theory into practice and find out about what results can be actually brought by the pronunciation testing and what problems in assessment may be encountered
55 صفحه فایل ورد فونت ۱۴ منابع دارد قیمت:۹۹۰۰ تومان
پس از پرداخت آنلاین میتوانید فایل کامل این پروژه را دانلود کنید
اگر مطلب مورد نظر خود را در این سایت پیدا نکردید میتوانید از قسمت سفارش پروژه جدید کار تحقیقی خود را به ما سفارش دهید
۱ Teaching and learning English pronunciation
۱٫ ۱ The role of the teacher
۱٫ ۲ The role of the learner
۱٫ ۳ Setting goals in English pronunciation
۱٫ ۴ What affects pronunciation learning
۱٫ ۴٫ ۱ The native language
۱٫ ۴٫ ۲ The age
۱٫ ۴٫ ۳ Phonetic ability
۱٫ ۴٫ ۴ Exposure to the language
۱٫ ۴٫ ۵ Attitude and sense of identity
۱٫ ۴٫ ۶ Motivation
۲ Giving feedback on pronunciation
۲٫ ۱ Assessment methods
۲٫ ۲٫ ۱ Impression-based pronunciation testing
۲٫ ۲٫ ۲ Atomistic testing
۲٫ ۲٫ ۳ Holistic testing
۲٫ ۲٫ ۴ Atomistic versus holistic approach
۳ Practical part
۳٫ ۱ Introduction
۳٫ ۲ Evocation
۳٫ ۲٫ ۱ Activity 1
۳٫ ۲٫ ۲ Activity 2
۳٫ ۳ Realisation
۳٫ ۳٫ ۱ Limited-response activities
۳٫ ۳٫ ۲ Free-response activities
۳٫ ۴ Reflexion
۴ Research part
۴٫ ۱ Plan and goals
۴٫ ۲ Methods
۴٫ ۳ Evocation and pre-research
۴٫ ۴ Realisation
۴٫ ۴٫ ۱ Atomistic testing results
۴٫ ۴٫ ۲ Holistic testing results
۴٫ ۵ Reflexion
۴٫ ۵٫ ۱ Assessors‘ agreement in atomistic testing
۴٫ ۵٫ ۲ Assessors‘ agreement in holistic testing
Level and age
The students differed in the level of English as well as in the age at which they began to learn English.
As far as the level of English is concerned, students belonged to three groups: A2, B1 and B2. The age at which they began learning English ranged from 6 to 50, so the whole group was very heterogeneous. Seven out of sixteen students began learning English in adulthood and the rest – nine students – before.
Exposure to English
None of the students reported using English out of the classroom or having been to an English-speaking country for more than a few weeks, so this factor can be considered as insignificant.
The native-language factor will be mentioned later on in connection with the problematic sounds. All students were Czech and therefore in most cases the problems with production of sounds, stress and intonation were similar within the whole tested group.
Information on the learners‘ phonetic ability, attitude and motivation is difficult to describe. But we are aware of the fact that these factors are very imprortant and that is also why we used the evocation phase before the research itself.
Prior to starting the main research part, a pre-research had been carried out in order to gather information of each learners’ pronunciation and on the basis of this a decision was made on setting out the goal and the criteria for our further steps.
The pre-research part was a reading-aloud task. The learners were given a text to read. This was a short dialogue. They were given time to read the text silently before the recording.
The assessors reported the same reasons for different evaluation in this test as in the first one. The results differed mainly because of omitted and changed words in the phrases so that the phrase lost its sense, however, the student used linking correctly.
When comparing the agreement in assessment between the first and the second recording, we come to very similar numbers,
The impression-based assessment is highly subjective and the „either-or“ evaluation can never be completely reliable. The „tick“ or „cross“ assessment is too restricted to such a subjective method of assessment. In our opinion, the impression-based assessment should not be restricted only to tick and cross answers as it has much wider scale.
Nevertheless, according to the results in the table, we are convinced that at least three assessors are necessary to balance the impression of only one.
۴. ۵٫ ۲ Assessors‘ agreement in holistic testing
In the holistic assessment the three scorers were supposed to evaluate the reading-aloud task according to the five-point scale in which the mark 5 represented the highest score. As we have already stated that the standard for the holistic assessment should not be native-like performance, but comfortable intelligibility, the results varied on the scale from the lowest to the highest scores. The assessors‘ task was to choose such a definition of the recorded performance which represented their impression best. The table below shows the rate of agreement of the three assessors in the five parts of holistic testing. Although the categories Production of sounds, Stress and Intonation tend to belong to the atomistic part, we decided to put them at the end of the holistic test as the task for the assessors was to give a mark for the overall impression of these three categories.